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Using genome projects

The control of gene expression (AQA A2 Biology) PART 4 of 8 TOPICS

 

 

TOPICS: Alternation of the sequence of bases in DNA can alter the structure of proteins  Gene expression is controlled by a number of features – most of the cell’s DNA is not translated  Gene expression is controlled by a number of features – regulation of transcription and translation  Gene expression is controlled by a number of features – gene expression and cancer  Using genome projects  Gene technologies allow the study and alteration of gene function allowing a better understanding of organism function and the new design of industrial and medical processes – recombinant DNA technology  Gene technologies allow the study and alteration of gene function allowing a better understanding of organism function and the new design of industrial and medical processes – differences in DNA between individuals of the same species can be exploited for identification and diagnosis of heritable conditions  Gene technologies allow the study and alteration of gene function allowing a better understanding of organism function and the new design of industrial and medical processes – genetic fingerprinting

 

 

 

 

 

Using genome projects:

Sequencing projects have read the genomes of a wide range of organisms including humans. An example of this is The Human Genome Project which was completed in 2003 and mapped the entire sequence of the human genome for the first time.

Determining the genome of simpler organisms allows the sequences of the proteins that derive from the genetic code of the organism to be determined. This is because the simple organisms such as bacteria have not many non-coding DNA compared to larger much more complex organisms. This means the proteome (the proteins coded by the DNA) is easily determined and is useful in medicine where the antigens on the bacteria are identified and vaccines can be developed.

Sequencing methods are continuously updated and have become automated (computer-based). Automated sequencing means it is much faster (it sequences 400 million bases in a ten-hour period to be precise) and is cost-effective. NB: The speed at which automated sequencing occurs does not need to be known.

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