1.1 Plant Cells and Animal Cells:
Fig.1.0 Basic structures of an animal cell and a plant cell.
1 . Cell wall:
- Non-living structure made of cellulose.
2 . Cell membrane/Plasma membrane
- Semi-permeable/Partially permeable(Only certain parts can pass through it and some aren’t able).
3 . Cytoplasm
- Contains cell organelles.
- Food substances.
- Mostly H2O.
4 . Vacuole/Sap vacuole/Large central vacuole
- Mostly H2O.
5 . Nucleus
- Controls all activities of a cell.
6 . Chloroplasts
- Contains green pigment called Chlorophyll which is important for doing Photosynthesis.
7 . Differences between plant cells and animal cellsOnly plant cells have
- Only plant cells have cell wall.
- Only plant cells have chloroplasts.
- Plant cells have a large central vacuole while some animal cells have small vacuoles and some doesn’t have any.
- Plant cells have a regular shape while animal cells have irregular shape
1.2 Specialized/Modified cells:
1 . Root Hair Cell:
- To absorb water and minerals
- Finger-like projection:
- Increases surface area for absorption.
- Has a larger vacuole to store more H2O
Fig.1.2 Root hair cell.
2 . Red blood cell:
- To carry/transport oxygen.
- Packed with haemoglobin (red pigment).
- No nucleus.
- Biconcave shape
Fig.1.3 Red blood cells.
3 . Xylem vessels:
- To transport H2O and minerals.
- Supporting plant body
Fig.1.4(a)Whole plant, (b) plant stem and (c)xylem vessel