- Biotechnology: using living organisms (especially microorganisms) to produce useful products (e.g. food, medicines) or to provide people with services (e.g. waste management, water purification).
- Biomolecule: a chemical or substance produced by a living organism.
- Microorganisms: living organisms that can only be seen under a microscope.
- Changes in foods such as milk and meat are due to microorganisms – bacteria and fungi. These microorganisms produce enzymes that change molecules in the original substance into different molecules. For example, bacteria act on a protein called casein in milk when it turns to cheese.
- Now, processes like this are called biotechnology. Biotechnology can be used for many different things, such as medicine.