Taxonomy is the science of classification. It involves naming, and organising organisms into groups based on their similarities and differences. There are seven levels of groups involved in taxonomy, they are called taxonomic groups. Organisms are first sorted into kingdoms, and then it starts to break down into more subsections. As you go down there are more groups but fewer organisms in each group.
It ends with specie, which is where there is only one organism in it. Specie can be defined as: A group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give off fertile offspring.
All species are given a unique scientific name, in latin, it is binominal word, first with the genus and second with the specie.
There are five kingdoms, these are based on general features.
Organisms can be reclassified, if once they have been revaluated, scientists agree with the new data, which shows the tentative natures of science.
There is also a three domain taxonomy being put forward. It is called molecular phyologeny. It looks at the DNA and Proteins and sees how closely related they area.
This new system suggests that the five kingdom should be changed to three, which are Bacteria, Achaea, and Eukaryote, these are super kingdoms and go above the kingdoms. The prokaryotic kingdom has been split into Achaea and bacteria when the other four kingdoms are now all in Eukaryote.
All organisms are given a unique scientific name. this is to avoid confusion that can arise when common names are used. There is a two part Latin name, which is called binominal system. The first part of the name is genus, it is shared by all closely related species, and the second part refers to the specific specie in the genus.
Phylogenetic trees represent the evolutionary relationship based on the best existing evidence, they are consistently being revised as new data becomes available.