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Risk Factors For CVD

RISK FACTORS FOR CVD

The following factors increase a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease:

  • GENETIC
  • Risk is increased if your parents have CVD.
  • Different chances of inheriting the defective genes; two recessive / one dominant allele = inherited
  • Represented via punnett square

  • DIET
  • some vitamins act as antioxidants, reducing the damaging effects of free radicals
  • high salt levels cause the kidneys to retain water à high internal fluid levels à increasing B.P
  • AGE
  • More likely as you get older.
  • Aging arteries — less elastic — easily damaged — blood clot / atherosclerosis / heart attack
  • GENDER
  • Incidence is much higher for men than women.
  • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
  • SMOKING
  • carbon monoxide is carried by haemoglobin instead of O2 à lack of O2
  • nicotine stimulates adrenaline release, increasing heart rate and blood pressure
  • chemicals damage endothelium triggering atherosclerosis à narrows artery à high B.P
  • decreased levels of HDLs
  • INACTIVITY
  • most common risk factor
  • reduces blood pressure = dangerous b/c cells lack oxygen
  • exercise can halve the risk of developing CHD, reduce risk of Type II diabetes and raises HDL levels
  • STRESS
  • Adrenalin released à increased blood pressure (b/s of constricting arteries), poor diet and increased alcohol consumption.
  • ALCOHOL
  • Heavy drinkers have an increased risk of CHD as alcohol raises blood pressure, contributes to obesity and causes irregular heartbeat. It also increases levels of LDLs.
  • Damages liver à liver cant remove glucose + lipids from blood
  • Liver converts alcohol to ethanol which ends p in LDL à plaque deposition
  • Moderate amounts of alcohol may increase HDL levels.