5.17 – Describe the process of micropropagation (tissue culture) in which small pieces of
plants (explants) are grown in vitro using nutrient media.
– Explants (small pieces of plant) are grown in vitro in agar jelly as it contains nutrients
(amino acids and glucose).
– Plant hormone and bleach and minerals are added to the plant
– The plant is grown in a sterile environment.
– Light and humidity are controlled.
5.18 – Understand how micropropagation can be used to produce commercial quantities
of identical plants (clones) with desirable characteristics.
– Micropropagation can be used to produce commercial (large) quantities of identical
plants (clones) with desirable characteristics.
5.19 – Describe the stages in the production of cloned mammals involving the
introduction of a diploid nucleus from a mature cell into an enucleated egg cell,
illustrated by Dolly the sheep.
– Egg cell is enucleated (nucleus taken out).
– A somatic cell nucleus is inserted into the enucleated egg cell.
– Electric shock initiates mitosis cell division.
– The cell becomes an embryo and is implanted in a surrogate mother’s uterus.
5.20 – Evaluate the potential for using cloned transgenic animals, for example to
produce commercial quantities of human antibodies or organs for transplantation.
– Transgenic animals are animals that have genes from other animals inserted into
– Animals can be given the gene to make human antibodies.
• These can then be injected into humans to help them face an infection within a short
– Animals could have organs with human cells that could be used for transplantation.
• This would solve organ shortages and moral / ethical issues.
• Animals organs can be genetically-modified to reduce rejection.