IB Categories Archives: General

Biology: Design Practical


Biology: Design Practical
Plant Physiology
Will increasing the salinity of the substrate adversely affect the rate of broad bean seed germination?
Background Research
Before a seed germinates, it goes through a resting period or dormancy. The germination of the seed is when the embryo resumes growth, bursting through its encasing (The SeedBiology Place 2009). This coat acts to protect the internal embryo from the elements, parasites and mechanical injury while it is still dormant (Washington State University 1999).Germination can only take place under particular circumstances, involving suitable temperature, oxygen supply, water and sunlight (RCN 2004). The time it takes for a seed to germinate varies between species, although this can be sped up by forcing germination through various methods. Germination begins once the seed is exposed to moisture, but the embryo will die if it withdrawn (Moore 1982).
Dormancy is caused by a number of factors, including incomplete seed development, the presence of a growth regulator, an impervious seed coat, or a requirement for pre-chilling. All these things would be typically overcome in the seed’s natural environment. Thus, it is important to maintain water, oxygen and temperature and optimum levels for germination(Clegg 2007).
Temperature is important, as it often affects the presence of germination inhibitors (RCN2004). When the temperature in not ideal, these chemicals continue to prevent the continuation of growth of the embryo, to ensure that the seed germinates under favourable conditions for continued growth and metabolism. The favoured temperature for germination varies greatly between plant species, depending on their environment.Temperature fluctuation as found in nature can also be a factor (RTBG 2009).
If there is insufficient supply of oxygen, germination may not take place (Aggie Horticulture2009). Oxygen is a requirement for respiration, meaning that a lack thereof will cause the plant to die soon after germination. Not all plant species require oxygen for the initial germination; however, all show a need afterwards (RTBG 2009).
Before the embryo leaves its casing, there is a large uptake of water, causing the embryo to expand and consequently burst through its casing (Washington State University 1999). The metabolism of the plant is vigorous when it first emerges, requiring a plentiful supply of water to support this (RCN 2004). Sometimes, it can also act to remove the germination inhibitor, allowing for germination to take place (ABC 2006). In all these respects, water is essential for the germination of seeds.
Light is also a factor for some plants, as plants require it for photosynthesis to occur. When buried too deeply, the plants dies soon after germination when it runs out of food supply, which it could not replenish (Aggie Horticulture 2009). It is not always a requirement for germination itself, but some seeds are sensitive to its availability (RTBG 2009).

All these factors are necessary, as they aid the seed to germinate when conditions are the most favourable for its long-term growth and survival (ABC 2009). When all these things are present at the right level, germination will occur. Germination is generally agreed to be thepoint at which the embryo pushes out of the seed encasing (RTBG 2009). From there, theplant will continue to develop and grow according to its species, producing food throughphotosynthesis.

Mineral nutrients are crucial for the growth and development of all plants. Legumes, such as broad beans are very efficient nitrogen fixers, adding nutrients to the soil (Moore 1982).
Plants have a tolerance level for the salinity of their substrate, within which they willgerminate. Soil and water both have small concentrations of salt naturally present, whichplants have developed to tolerate (ABC 2006). Farming in many areas with non-native plants which have shallow roots have raised groundwater, causing salt to rise to the surface.
Broad beans, Vicia faba, have been cultivated in Europe for over 4000 years (Blazey 1999).They are frost-hardy annuals, hence they tend to be grown in autumn and winter. Since they are adapted to survive heavy frost, they will usually be sown in autumn for flowering before temperatures rise above 20°C (Blazey 1999). For the Australian climate, this is best done from March to May, as they have a germinating temperature of 5-20°C (Moore 1982).
Will increasing the salinity of the substrate adversely affect the rate of broad bean seed germination?
Table 1.0 – Table to show independent and dependent variables in the experiment
Amount of Water  –
All the seeds will be given 100mL of water at planting, and then were not given any more. They will all be receiving the same amount of water. Water is retained by laying clear plastic wrap over the containers to prevent water evaporating off.
Salt  –
Saxa’ iodised table salt (Manufactured by ‘Cheetham Salt Ltd’ for ‘Salpak Pty Ltd’ ) will be used in all soils that are being treated with salt.
 Yates’ broad bean Vicia faba seeds will be used throughout the entire experiment.
Water  –
The water used on the seeds will be sourced from the same tap for the entire experiment. This is to reduce any variation in levels of chlorine and other substances, which may affect them. The water will also be of the same temperature as it will be collected from the same source.
Sunlight  –
All the seeds will receive the same amount of exposure to sunlight. They will remain in the same area at all times, meaning that there will be no variation between groups. The amount they receive cannot be measured, but as it is constant, it will not be a factor in any difference between the results of each test.
Temperature –
 The temperature of the seeds’ environment will be controlled by keeping the seeds in the same area. This will mean that there is no variation in temperature between them. This, in turn, will keep the temperature of the water constant.
Substrate –
The soil used for the experiment was the same for all the trials. All other substrates, such as soil, would naturally have a low salt concentration, altering the concentration the seeds would be exposed to.
  • 50 x broad bean Vicia faba seeds
  • 5 x take-away containers – 11x16cm
  • 5 litres tap water
  • Saxa iodised table salt
  • Pyrex 1 litre measuring jug
  • Pyrex 500mL measuring jug
  • Electronic balance
  • Black permanent marker pen
  • Metal stirring rod
  • Clear plastic Home Brand cling wrap
  • Yates GroPlus Multi Purpose Potting Mix
Table 1.1 – Table to show the uncertainty for the equipment used in the experiment 
Setting Up
Figure 1.2 – Figure to show setting up for experiment with seeds in plastic container, partially covered by substrate. See Appendix A for photograph.
1. The side of each take-away container was marked with the number 1 to 5 with the marker pen, to indicate which concentration it contained.
2. Each container was filled with potting mix to a depth of 2cm.
3. Ten broad bean seeds were placed in each container, pressed into the soil so that they were partially covered by the potting mix.
4. Washed 1 litre measuring jug then filled with 1 litre tap water, taking care that no parallax error was made in reading.
5. For the first solution, no salt was added, so 100mL of the water was measured in the500mL measuring jug, then poured over the substrate in container marked 1.
6. Washed the measuring jug, and then filled with 1 litre of tap water from the same source. Exactly 2.60g salt was measured on the electronic balance and added to the water to make a concentration of 0.25%, and then stirred with the rod until the salt dissolved.
7. 100mL of the salt solution was measured into the 500mL measuring jug, then poured over the substrate in container 2.
8. This procedure was repeated 3 more times, washing the measuring jug to remove and residual salt. 5.00g, 7.60g and 10.20g of salt were added in turn for concentrations of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00% respectively.
9. Once all the samples had been watered, they were placed in an outdoor area. During the day, they received direct sunlight. They were not exposed to any additional artificial light.
10. Clear plastic film was placed over the containers to prevent water evaporating. Airflow was still allowed.
11. The samples were examined daily to see if any of the seeds had germinated. This was indicated by the rupture of the encasing and a visible plant root. The total number of germinated seeds was recorded each day for 10 days.
Table 2.0 – Table to record the cumulative number of seeds germinated for each day of the trial. See appendix 1 for original recordings
Evaporated water formed droplets on the plastic film. For the first few days, there was no visible change in the seeds. After day four, many of the seeds began to germinate, with the tip of the root becoming visible. In sample 3, concentration 0.50%, one of the seeds split open and did not germinate. The reason for this is unclear, as the seed coat was not damaged before planting.
After germination, the broad beans plant continued to grow. The roots were not able to grow down because the substrate was too shallow, so they remained visible. The substrate remained quite moist due to the presence of the plastic film.
Processed Data
Table 3.0 – Table to show the number of seeds that germinated each day 
Table 3.1 – Table to show the percentage of seeds that germinated, the average number of days the seeds took to germinate and the standard deviation
Figure 3.2 – Example calculation of the average and standard deviation
Graph 3.3 – Graph to show cumulative number of germinated broad bean seeds, as shown in table 2.0
The graph above makes is fairly clear which salt concentrations best-promoted germination.The seeds with 1.00% salt were clearly the slowest to germinate. The ones with the 0.75%salt solutions were also much slower to germinate. The other three concentrations (0.50%,0.25% and 0.00%) remained fairly close together, having similar germination rates.
However, the seeds with the 0.25% salt solution germinated the fastest, with the 0.00%ones following close behind. With the split seed among the 0.50% seeds, it is uncertain whether all of these seeds would have germinated if this one had been healthy.
Graph 3.4 – Graph to show the number of seeds that germinated on each day, as seen in table 3.0
These figures demonstrate that 0.25% and 0.50% both spiked to six germinations on the fourth, and had all of their seeds germinated by the sixth day [excluding the split one in the0.50% group]. This rapid germination again suggests that these concentrations provide better conditions for the germination of the germination of the broad bean seeds. Out of the two, however, 0.25% had the greatest number of germinations, and they occurred faster, with 3 germinations on the fifth day, compared to 2 from the 0.50% group.
The 0.00% group also had the highest spike on the fourth day, however, it was of a smaller magnitude. This group only had 5 germinations, gradually reaching 10 germinations after eight days. While the rate of germination was comparable to the 0.20% and 0.50% groups, it took much longer for all the germinations to happen.
The group planted with the 0.75% salt solution spiked on the fifth day with five germinations. Considering that only seven of the seeds in this group actually germinated, it suggests that these conditions are not as ideal for germination. While germination still occurred, it took longer, and the success rate was not as high.
The 1.00% group were the least successful, with a small spike of two germinations after five days, eventually having 5 germinations after the tenth day. The rate of germination was significantly slower than any of the other groups.
Graph 3.5 – Graph to compare the average number of days it took for the seeds to germinate in the different substrate concentrations.
The trend in this graph clearly shows that the lower salt concentrations in the substrate promoted an earlier germination. However, although 0.50% concentration had the lowest average, it is important to bear in mind that not all of these seeds germinated.
In conclusion, the results of this experiment indicate that the optimum concentration of salt in the substrate to promote germination of broad bean seeds is 0.25%. While all the lower concentrations had good average germination times, 0.25% had 100% germination of its seeds, and had a lower standard deviation that 0.00%. This shows that the seeds all germinated within a very close time period, and suggests that this data is more reliable.Also, in graph 3.3, it can be seen that 0.25% was the first group to have all of its seeds germinated on day six.
On the other hand, 1.00% yielded very poor results, with only 50% of the seeds germinating and an average germination time of 7.8 days. This shows that the higher salt concentrationprevented germination of the seeds.
These results support the hypothesis, showing that a higher salt concentration did in factadversely affect the rate of germination, based both on how long the seeds took togerminate, and the percentage of seeds which actually germinated. Having a smallconcentration of salt in the substrate causes faster germination than a zero one, butincreasing the concentration further inhibits growth.
The results are further supported by research done by James J. Camberato, Ph.D., S. BruceMartin and Amy V. Turner in their study of the effect of higher salinity on Rough Bluegrass,
Poa trivialis. Their results showed that higher salinity slows the rate of germination(Camberato 2000).
Therefore, increasing the salinity of the substrate does have a negative effect on broad bean germination.
1. Blazey, Clive. (1999). The Australian Vegetable Garden: What’s new is old. Sydney, New Holland Publishers.
2. Camberato, James, Ph. D. (2000). Salinity and seed lot affect rough bluegrass germination. Florence, Pee Dee Research and Education Centre.
3. Clegg, C J. (2007). Biology for the IB Diploma. London, Hodder Murray.
4. Moore, Judy, et al. (1982). The Complete Australian Gardener. Sydney, Bay Books.
5. Aggie Horticulture. (2009). Seed Germination. Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from
6. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2009). Fact Sheet: Seed GerminationRetrieved 3 December, 2009, from
7. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2006). Lesson Plan 12: Salt and GerminationRetrieved 2 April, 2010, from
8. RCN. (2004). Germination of Seeds. Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from
9. Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens. (2009). Seed Germination Requirements(RTBG2009) Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from
10. Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens. (2009). What is Germination? Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from
11. The Seed Biology Place. (2009). Seed Germination: Definition and Reviews. Retrieved 3 December, 2009, from
12. Washington State University. (1999). Seed Germination. Retrieved 3 December,2009, from
Continue Reading

AP/IB Lab Format

AP/IB Lab Format

General Considerations

  • Lab reports should preferably be typed.
  • Graphs, charts, etc. may be computer-generated.
  • NO photocopies of ANYTHING are allowed in lab reports unless specified by instructor. Note: sometimes you will “attach” materials and methods and write “see attached” in that case.
  • Do not personalize procedure or conclusion, i.e., do not write, “I placed the beaker by the light”…
  • Always cite references if you used them in introduction, conclusion, etc.

Specific Items to be Included in Lab Report

TITLE – This should be a clear statement of the problem investigated. It should be long enough to give a definite indication of what the experiment encompassed.

INTRODUCTION – Give some background information relevant to the investigation. This should generally be one half to a full page, and at the end of the introduction, you will lead into your

QUESTION/PROBLEM by stating something such as, “In this experiment, the effect of pH on an enzyme will be investigated.”

HYPOTHESIS – Connect the independent and dependent variables with an “If…then” statement. State what the independent, dependent, and controlled variables are for the investigation.

MATERIALS – LIST all materials used in the experiment.

METHOD – This may be in paragraph or list form. Make sure you are thorough but not wordy. Include EVERYTHING so that someone would be able to pick up the procedure you have written and carry out the experiment by his or herself. Two elements that must be included are how variables were controlled and how data was collected.

DATA – And this means RAW DATA ONLY – whatever readings ore measurements you made or observations that you wrote down. In other words, this data has not been manipulated AT ALL! Should be in chart form and readable. Units must be included, a title is required, and degrees of uncertainty in the measurement must be clearly shown. Drawings must include all the necessary elements of laboratory sketches.

DATA PROCESSING – This may include calculations of averages, standard deviations, rate of change, etc. Always include an example of each type of calculation. Graphs may be the way to represent an analysis of the data. Be sure to include all the required elements of graphing – title, labeled axes with units, proper scale, correct plots, and a key if necessary.

AP/IB Lab Format

CONCLUSIONS – Interpret your results relative to your hypothesis. If possible, state whether or not the hypothesis was supported by your results. Where applicable, compare your experimental results with book values, citing the reference. Speculate on the meaning of your results. This should be detailed and comprise a “healthy” paragraph.

EVALUATION – Discuss and delineate at least three sources of error, discussing how the errors could have affected the experiment. BE SPECIFIC. For instance, do not just say “Human Error.” Instead tell exactly what techniques or procedures were done incorrectly and how it affected the outcome. Next state at least three improvements to the experimental design that would allow for a better result. Discuss modifications that might take the investigation a step further.

Continue Reading

Summary of Biology Definitions

Summary of Biology Definitions


2.4.4 – Define diffusion and osmosis

Diffusion – the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

Osmosis – the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.


3.2.1 – Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds are based on carbon and can be found in living things. Exceptions CO. These are classed as non-organic carbon. Three types of organic compounds widely found in living organisms are lipids, proteins and carbohydrates.

Inorganic compounds are any compounds that do not fall into the category of organic compounds.


3.6.1 – Define enzyme and active site

Enzyme – A biological catalyst made of globular protein

Active Site -The region of an enzyme molecule surface where the substrate molecule binds and catalysis occurs


3.6.4 – Define denaturation

A structural change in a protein that alters its shape and results in a loss of biological properties. This can be caused by pH or temperature.


3.7.1 – Define cell respiration

Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells in the form of ATP


4.1.2 – Define gene, allele and genome

Gene – A gene is a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic

Allele – An allele is a specific form of a gene, differing for other alleles by one or a few bases only. They occupy the same gene locus as the other alleles on the gene

Genome – The whole of the genetic information of an organism


4.1.3 – Define gene mutation

A gene mutation is a change in the base sequence of an allele


4.2.2 – Define homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes in a diploid cell which contain the same sequence of genes, but are derived from different parents.


4.3.1 – Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross

Genotype – The alleles of an organism

Phenotype – The characteristics of an organism

Dominant Allele – An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state

Recessive Allele – An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state

Codominant Alleles – Pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote

Locus – The particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene

Homozygous – Having two identical alleles of a gene

Heterozygous – Having two different alleles of a gene

Carrier – An individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele

Test Cross – Testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive

4.3.7 – Define sex linkage

Genes carried on only one of the sex chromosomes and which therefore show a different pattern of inheritance in crosses where the male carries the gene from where the female carries the gene

4.4.11 – Define clone

A group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell

5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem and ecology

Species – A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

Habitat – The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.

Population – A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.

Community – A group of populations living and interacting with each other in the same area.

Ecosystem – A community and its abiotic environment.

Ecology – The study of relationships between living organisms and their environment

5.1.2 – Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph

Autotroph – An organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances

Heterotroph – An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms

5.1.3 – Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs

Consumers – An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed

Detritivore – An organism that ingests non-living organic matter, also known as a decomposer.

Saprotroph – An organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion

5.1.6 – Define trophic level

The trophic level of an organism defines the feeding relationship of that organism to other organisms in a food chain. In a food web, a consumer can occupy a number of different trophic levels, depending on which organism is the prey.

5.4.1 – Define evolution

Evolution is the cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population.

6.1.6 – Distinguish between absorption and assimilation

Absorption – Soluble products of digestion are absorbed into the blood circulation system, or the lymphatic system if they are fats droplets.

Assimilation – Products of digestion are absorbed into the cells from the blood to be stored or used within the tissues.

6.3.1 – Define pathogen

An organism or virus that causes a disease or sickness. These are usually microorganisms.

6.3.5 – Distinguish between antigen and antibodies

Antigen – A foreign substance that stimulates the production of antibodies. It is recognised by the immune system, triggering this immune response.

Antibodies – Proteins, immunoglobin, that recognise and bind to specific antigens. These have a T or Y shape made from polypeptide chains.

6.4.1 – Distinguish between ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration 

Ventilation – The pumping mechanism that moves air in and out of the lungs efficiently, thereby maintaining the concentration gradient for diffusion.

Gas Exchange – The exchange of gases between an organism and its surroundings, including the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide in animals and plants.

Cell Respiration – The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells. It is a continuous process in all cells.

6.5.4 – Define resting potential and action potential (depolarisation and repolarisation)

Resting Potential – An electrical potential across a cell membrane when not conducting an impulse

Action Potential – The localised reversal, or depolarisation, and then restoration, or repolarisation, of electrical potential between the inside and outside of a neuron as the impulse moves along it

7.3.2 – Distinguish between the sense and antisense strands of DNA

Sense strand – The coding strand that carries the promoter sequence of bases to which RNA polymerase binds and begins transcription. It has the same base sequence as mRNA, except with uracil instead of thymine. It also carries the terminator sequence of bases at the end of each gene, causing RNA polymerase to stop transcription

Antisense strand – The template strand for transcription by complementary base pairing. It has the same base sequence as tRNA with uracil instead of thymine.

9.2.5 – Define transpiration

Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the leaves and stems of plants

9.3.2 – Distinguish between pollination, fertilisation and seed dispersal

Pollination – The transfer of pollen grains from the mature anther to the receptive stigma

Fertilisation – The fusion of the male gamete with the female gamete to form a zygote

Seed Dispersal – Seeds are moved away moved away from the vicinity of the parental plant before germination to reduce competition for limited resources. Mechanisms for this include fruits, winds, water and animals.

10.2.2 – Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes

Autosome – A chromosome that is not a sex-chromosome. They do not vary depending on gender

Sex Chromosome – A chromosome which determines sex rather than other body (soma) characteristics

10.3.1 – Define polygenic inheritance

Inheritance of phenotypic characters (such as height, eye colour in humans) that are determined by the collective effects of several genes – a single characteristic that is controlled by two or more genes

11.3.1 – Define excretion

The removal of the waste products of metabolic pathways from the body

11.3.5 – Define osmoregulation

The control of the water balance of the blood, tissue or cytoplasm of a living organism.


Continue Reading

IB Biology Syllabus Outline

Topics marked with an asterisk (*) do not currently have IB Screwed notes available. Check back regularly as they will be added later.

Topic 1 – Statistical Analysis

Unit 1.1 – Statistical Analysis


Topic 2 – Cells

Unit 2.1 – Cell Theory

Unit 2.2 – Prokaryotic Cells

Unit 2.3 – Eukaryotic Cells

Unit 2.4 – Membranes

Unit 2.5 – Cell Division


Topic 3 – The Chemistry of Life

Unit 3.1 – Chemical Elements and Water

Unit 3.2 – Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Unit 3.3 – DNA Structure

Unit 3.4 – DNA Replication

Unit 3.5 – Transcription and Translation

Unit 3.6 – Enzymes

Unit 3.7 – Cell Respiration

Unit 3.8 – Photosynthesis


Topic 4 – Genetics

Unit 4.1 – Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles and Mutations

Unit 4.2 – Meiosis Unit 4.3 – Theoretical Genetics

Unit 4.3 – Theoretical Genetics

Unit 4.4 – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology


Topic 5 – Ecology and Evolution

Unit 5.1 – Communities and ecosystems

Unit 5.2 – The Greenhouse Effect

Unit 5.3 – Populations

Unit 5.4 – Evolution

Unit 5.5 – Classification


Topic 6 – Human Health and Physiology

Unit 6.1 – Digestion

Unit 6.2 – The Transport System

Unit 6.3 – Defence Against Infectious Disease

Unit 6.4 – Gas Exchange

Unit 6.5 – Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

Unit 6.6 – Reproduction


Higher Level Topics:

Topic 7 – Nucleic Acids and Proteins

Unit 7.1 – DNA Structure

Unit 7.2 – DNA Replication

Unit 7.3 – Transcription

Unit 7.4 – Translation

Unit 7.5 – Proteins

Unit 7.6 – Enzymes


Topic 8 – Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis

Unit 8.1 – Cell Respiration

Unit 8.2 – Photosynthesis


Topic 9 – Plant Science

Unit 9.1 – Plant Structure and Growth

Unit 9.2 – Transport in Angiospermophytes

Unit 9.3 – Reproduction in Angiospermophytes


Topic 10 – Genetics

Unit 10.1 – Meiosis

Unit 10.2 – Dihybrid Crosses and Gene Linkage

Unit 10.3 – Polygenic Inheritance


Topic 11 – Human Health and Physiology

Unit 11.1 – Defence Against Infectious Disease

Unit 11.2 – Muscles and Movement

Unit 11.3 – The Kidney

Unit 11.4 – Reproduction


Standard Level Options:

Option A – Human Nutrition and Health

Unit A.1 – Components of the Human Diet*

Unit A.2 – Energy in Human Diets*

Unit A.3 – Special Issues in Human Nutrition*


Option B – Physiology of Exercise

Unit B.1 – Muscles and Movement*

Unit B.2 – Training and the Pulmonary System*

Unit B.3 – Training and the Cardiovascular System*

Unit B.4 – Exercise and Respiration*

Unit B.5 – Fitness and Training*

Unit B.6 – Injuries*


Option C – Cells and Energy

Unit C.1 – Proteins*

Unit C.2 – Enzymes*

Unit C.3 – Cell Respiration*

Unit C.4 – Photosynthesis*


Standard and Higher Level Options:

Option D – Evolution

Unit D.1 – Origin of Life on Earth*

Unit D.2 – Species and Speciation*

Unit D.3 – Human Evolution*

Unit D.4 – The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (HL)*

Unit D.5 – Phylogeny and Systematics (HL)*


Option E – Neurobiology and Behaviour

Unit E.1 – Stimulus and Response

Unit E.2 – Perception of Stimuli

Unit E.3 – Innate and Learned Behaviour

Unit E.4 – Neurotransmitters and Synapses

Unit E.5 – The Human Brain (HL)

Unit E.6 – Further Studies of Behaviour (HL)


Option F – Microbes and Biotechnology

Unit F.1 – Diversity of Microbes*

Unit F.2 – Microbes and the Environment*

Unit F.3 – Microbes and Biotechnology*

Unit F.4 – Microbes and Food Production*

Unit F.5 – Metabolism of Microbes (HL)*

Unit F.6 – Microbes and Disease (HL)*


Option G – Ecology and Conservation

Unit G.1 – Community Ecology

Unit G.2 – Ecosystems and Biomes

Unit G.3 – Impacts of Humans on Ecosystems

Unit G.4 – Conservation of Biodiversity (HL)

Unit G.5 – Population Ecology (HL)


Higher Level Options:


Option H – Further Human Physiology

Unit H.1 – Hormonal Control*

Unit H.2 – Digestion*

Unit H.3 – Absorption of Digested Foods*

Unit H.4 – Functions of the Liver*

Unit H.5 – The Transport System*

Unit H.6 – Gas Exchange*

Continue Reading